tilbage til engelsk

 

 

BASISGRAMMATIK

 

Denne grammatik er lavet af Trine Granild-Jensen, Rosborg Gymnasium, Vejle og moderat bearbejdet af Jørgen Lassen. Er der fejl eller mangler skyldes det min bearbejdning. Hvis der er spørgsmål eller kommentarer til denne grundlæggende basisgrammatik er de yderst velkomne. Se kontakt mig.

 

 

 

§ 1   ORDSTILLING

 

DANSK: Lidt senere kom far hjem.

ENGELSK: A little later Dad came home.

 

Engelsk har LIGEFREM ORDSTILLING: grundled - udsagnsled

Dansk har ofte omvendt ordstilling: udsagnsled - grundled

 

Pludselig så hun på ham = Suddenly she looked at him.

 

NOT skal placeres EFTER HJÆLPEUDSAGNSORDET

 

Hun sagde at hun ikke kunne svømme.

She said that she could not swim.  ( lyt til sammentrækningen couldn't )

 

 

UNDTAGELSER

 

 

OMVENDT ORDSTLLING:

 

Når sætningen begynder med et nægtende eller indskrænkende biord:

Never, no sooner, not until, little, hardly...

 

Hardly had she begun her speech when he fell down, dead.

 

Når man med "say" "was" angiver hvem der taler.

 

  "Yes", said Alison.

  "No", was the answer.

 

 

 

 

§ 2    NAVNEORD I FLERTAL

 

Private + S

                                          

One dog  -  two dogs

One duck  -  two ducks

One dose  -  two doses

One duchess  -  two duchesses

One fly  -  two flies   (sort+y =IES)          

 

 

UNDTAGELSER

 

Mange almindelige ord har OMLYD

 

MAN - MEN; WOMAN - WOMEN; (HIM)SELF - (THEM)SELVES); CHILD - CHILDREN; FOOT - FEET; MOUSE - MICE; etc.

I believe myself that they must hate themselves for what they

have done to me!

 

Enkelte navneord kan IKKE SÆTTES I FLERTAL: MONEY, INFORMATION,

                                                                    FURNITURE,NEWS,ADVICE       

 

Jeg har mange oplysninger/møbler/råd til dig:

I have much information/furniture/advice for you.

What is the news?

Antal angives i nødstilfælde ved hjælp af A PIECE OF

He gave me a piece of good advice that day.

 

Enkelte navneord eksisterer KUN I FLERTAL: SCISSORS, POLICE,

                                                               CONTENTS, PEOPLE  

 

 

 The police are keeping an eye on you!

 

GRUPPEBETEGNELSER henviser til gruppen i ENTAL

                                               til individderne i FLERTAL

 

A new government was formed. The government are doing all

they can. (FAMILY; TEAM; MANAGEMENT etc.)

Logisk flertal: They changed seats. One and a half years

NB: PEOPLE i betydn. "folkeslag" har flertal: PEOPLES

 

 

 

 

 

§ 3    NAVNEORD I EJEFALD

 

 's/ '

ved person

 

  OF

ved ikke-person

 

 

  's  

på navneordet, MEN hvis det ender på -s i forvejen så tilføjes kun:

'

 

One boy's hat and two boys' hats do not look like one man's  hat and two men's hats,

not to speak of one lady's hat and two ladies' hats.

 

 OF

ejefalden omskrives med en OF-KONSTRUKTION

 

The roof of the house  is red. The tail of a dog   varies in form and colour.

 

 

UNDTAGELSER

                       

Tids- og målbetegnelser tager 's ejefald:

 

A month's pay.  An hour's walk.  A boat's length.

 

En persons HJEM, FORRETNING, en INSTITUTION underforstås:

 

Were you at your uncle's?  He went to the butcher's.  Did you see the altar in St.Paul's?

 

Fællesnavn + egenavn tager OF-EJEFALD:

 

Byen Vejle = the town of Vejle.  Maj måned = the month of May.

 

OF-EJEFALD i stedet for  '-ejefald i flg. tilfælde:

 

For at gøre en flertal tydelig: The opinion of of my friends is...

 

Ved uhåndgribelig styrelse: The beauty of a girl 

 

Vellydsårsager: The wife of my sister's son.

                The departure of the King and Queen  from Leeds.

 

 

 

 

§ 4   TILLÆGSORD

 

TILLÆGSORD lægger sig til NAVNEORD:

 

Isn't this a slow train? - Yes, it is a slow train!

 

TILLÆGSORD kan IKKE STÅ ALENE  men skal have STØTTEORD:

 

Først slog den unge den gamle, så...=

First the young man hit the old one/man...

Det sjove var, at... = The funny thing was ...

Det bedste var, da...= The funniest part was when...

Du er den eneste for mig. = You are the only one for me.

 

UNDTAGELSER

 

Ved BEGREBER MED ALMEN BETYDNING udelades støtteordet

 

The unexpected  had happened.

 

Ved GRUPPER/ KLASSER:(The unemployed, the poor, the French) udelades det.

 

Why not give the poor in third world a chance?

 

Hvis det ikke er muligt at bruge støtteord OMSKRIVES der:

 

 MED WHAT:    

                            I prefer what is old    (det gamle)

                            This is what is most important is ...  (det vigtigste)

 

TIL ET NAVNEORD:

             

                            The majesty of the forest (det majestætiske ved skoven)

                            The hopelessness of the situation (det håbløse i situationen)

 

 

 

 

§ 5    GRADBØJNING AF TILLÆGSORD

 

I. MED ENDELSER:    2 grad = -er;      3 grad = -est 

 

FAT (1 grad/grundformen) - FATTER (2 grad)  -  FATTEST (3 grad)

 

BRUGES VED:

ENSTAVELSESORD:                         great - greater - greatest

TOSTAVELSESORD  der ender på -er: clever - cleverer - cleverest  

                                                -le: simple - simpler  - simplest

                                                -ow: narrow - narrower - norrowest

                                                -y : happy - happier - happiest

 

II. ELLERS MED: MORE (2 grad) ;   NOST  (3 grad)

 

STUPID (1 grad/ grundform)  - MORE STUPID (2 grad) -  MOST STUPID (3 grad)

 

UREGELMÆSSIGE BØJNINGER

 

GOOD  -  BETTER  -  BEST

BAD/ILL/EVIL   -  WORSE   -  WORST

LATE         - LATER    - LATEST : om den foreløbigt sidste

                                      - LAST   : om den absolut sidste   His latest book but not his last, we hope!

                                                              

OLD  - OLDER  -  OLDEST

                                      - ELDEST : kun om yngre/ældre inden for en familie

LITTLE/SMALL  -  SMALLER  -  SMALLEST: om størrelse.       LITTLE=NUTTET  

                                      -  LESS  - LEAST: om mængde               SMALL=SAGLIGT

 

                                                                           

FALSK SAMMENLIGNING (uden sammenligningsled) : en ældre herre,

                                                                             en bedre middag

 

 A (rather/pretty) old man; A (rather/very) good dinner.       ­

 

FØRST (om tid) : NOT UNTIL   He did not come until 5 o'clock

                       Også AT FIRST (til at begynde med)

                       I did not recognize him at first.

                       Også FIRST..THEN: First he coughed,then he bowed  

                                                                         

 

 

 

 

§ 6   BIORD                           

 

Private  - ly

 

BIORD lægger sig til ALT ANDET END NAVNEORD

 

The train moved slowly up the hill.  (til udsagnsordet)

The train was extremely slow.        (til tillægsordet)

The train moved extremely slowly.    (til biordet)

Unfortunately the train moved slowly.(til hele sætningen)

 

 

UNDTAGEN

 

Når udsagnsordet er: BE, SEEM      (omsagnsled til grundled)

                             TASTE, SMELL,FEEL, SOUND,HEAR (sanseudsagnsord)                                 LOOK i betydningen "se ud"

 

He seemed nervous, and admitted that he was very nervous.

He looked angrily at me - I suppose I must have looked angry too.

 

Hvis tillægsordet ikke kan få -ly: OMSKRIV MED IN A..........WAY

 

She moved about in a  lively way.

He looked at her in a  surprised way.

 

 

Nogle få tillægsord har dobbeltform med -ly. BIORDET OMSKRIVES. Se ovf.

 

HARD - HARDLY  He hit the cat in a hard way.

JUST - JUSTLY (med rette)

MOST - MOSTLY.                                           

 

Ord på -ic  tilføjer -ally: systematicALLY

 

"Noget" foran et tillægsord: SOMEWHAT

 

He was somewhat pale.  (som variation til a little)

 

 

 

 

§ 7   BIORDS PLACERING

 

DANSK: Han tabte aldrig  hovedet

ENGELSK: He never lost his head       

 

SMÅBIORD skal stå FORAN HOVEDUDSAGNSORDET/ efter det første

                                                                             hjælpeudsagnsord.    

 

OFTEN, NOW, NEVER, ALWAYS,

Hun sagde, at han aldrig havde spillet så godt før.

She said that he   had   never played  so well before.

He desperately been wanting to tell her the news.

 

Undtagen ved TO BE, hvor biordet PLACERES BAGEFTER

 

Fortæl mig om du ofte er  vred - Tell me if you are often angry.

I am always here.

 

 

FØRST/ SIDST i sætningen placeres TID, STED, LANGE LED.

 

England arrangerede i maj sidste år i Wimbledon den årlige sportsbegivenhed.

In May last year England arranged the annual sports event in Wimbledon.

 

Det var klart, at begivenheden før eller senere ville drukne i dårligt vejr.

It was clear that (sooner or later) the event would drown in bad weather (sooner or later)

 

Dette er idag sket. - This has happened today.

 

Personlige stedord (han/hun/du/de) må IKKE SKILLES FRA SIT UDSAGN­SORD, undtagen af supersmå ord (now, often)

 

Jeg lovede, at jeg når filmen var forbi, ville rydde mit værelse op.

I promised  that when the film was over I would tidy up my room. 

 

 

 

 

§ 8   SPØRGENDE OG HENFØRENDE STEDORD

 

 

WHO             : person

WHICH/WHAT: ikke person

THAT            : person/ikke person

 

 

SPECIELLE FORHOLD

 

 SPØRGENDE (hvem, hvad, hvilke?)

HENFØRENDE (som, der, hvilket/hvad)

WHICH om begrænset antal,

             OGSÅ PERSONER

 

Which Danish band do you like best?

Which of you has taken my book?

 

 

WHOSE: også om TING   (dansk: hvis)

 

There are many animals whose existence is threatened.

A bedroom whose beds are too big

 

 

HVAD der = WHICH, når det viser tilbage (henførende)

 

Han prøvede en ny forklaring, hvad der ikke hjalp mig.

He tried a new explanation,  which did not help me.

You were late this morning which was bad enough, but... (hvad der var slemt nok)

 

 

ALDRIG FORHOLDSORD FORAN THAT-sætning

 

Jeg er bange for, at - I'm afraid  that ... (udelad forholdsordet)   I

 

På trods af at ... - In spite of the fact that...  (indskyd THE FACT)   II

 

I stedet for at jeg skulle gå... - In stead of my/me leaving  (omskriv til -ing-sætning)  III    

           

 

 

 

 

§ 9   UDSAGNSORD  

         - BØJNING I TID OG PER­SON  

 

I 3 PERSON ENTAL nutid ender udsagnsordet på -s

                            

Peter/She/The boat/  sails

He/Anne/it/  is sailing out there

 

IKKE I FLERTAL, hvor det derimod er navneordet, der får -s (se § 2)

The boats sail

 

TIDERNE OG FORMERNE

 

FREMTID - NUTID - DATID - FØR NUTID - FØR DATID

 

TO PLAY / TO EAT

HOVEDFORMERNE:   to play (1)                played (2)                    played (3)           REGELMÆSSIGT

                                      to eat                       ate                              eaten                  UREGEL­MÆSSIGT

NUTID (Hovedform 1)

I play / eat

you play / eat

he/she/it plays / eats

we play/ eat

you play / eat

they play/eat

DATID  (Hovedform 2)

I played / ate

you played/ ate

He/she/it played/ate

we played/ ate

you played/ ate

they played / ate

FØR NUTID

I have played/eaten

you have played/eaten

he/she/it has played/eaten

we have played/eaten

you have played/eaten

they  have played/eaten

FØR DATID (Hovedform 3)

I had played /eaten

you had played/ eaten

he/she/it had played / eaten

we had played/ eaten

you had played / eaten

they had played / eaten

ING-FORMER

NUTID

I  am playing /eating

you are playing/eating

he/she/it is playing/eating

we are playing/eating

you are playing/eating

they are playing/eating

ING-FORM

DATID

I was playing / eating

you were playing/ eating

he/she/it was playing/eating

we were playing/eating

you were playing/ eating

they were playing/eating

FØR NUTID

I have been plaing/eating

FØR DATID

I had been playing/eating

 

 

 

 

§ 10  HJÆLPEUDSAGNSORD

 

I. HAVE bruges til at danne FØR-NUTID og FØR-DATID   (dansk ofte: er/var)

 

Toget er gået  - The train has left

Han er ikke kommet  -  He has not come.

Kirken var blevet grundlagt  -  The church had been founded.

Tyven er fanget  - The thief has been caught.  (er blevet fanget)

 

 

II. DO / DID bruges til at danne SPØRGENDE og NÆGTENDE sætninger

    i nutid og datid. Men aldrig af hjælpe/mådesudsagnsordene (se § 10 og 13)

 

Do / Did you love me?  -   No, I do / did not love you!  

 

 

Også do-omskrivn. når sætn. begynder med et nægtende/indskrænkende biord:

Never, No sooner, Not until, Little, Hardly    (smlgn. § 1)

 

Never did I see such a sight! Little did I dream that this would happen!

 

Også i følelsesladede eftertryk

 

Oh, dear, oh dear! I do hope you are right!  -  But I do love you. I have told you! 

 

 

III. BE bruges til at danne LIDEFORM (: genstandsleddet omskrives til grundled)

     (f.eks. for det danske "MAN"  -  se § 17)

 

The mouse was caught by the cat.  ( "The cat caught the mouse" i alm. form)

He could not be trusted  (Man kunne ikke stole på ham )

KONJUNKTIV findes  kun som en form af TO BE i faste udtryk (ønske):

If I were you ...   -   I wish it were over!  -   If only he were here

 

 

 

 

§ 11  UDSAGNSORD

          I ING-FORM/SIMPEL FORM

 

I.

  SIMPEL FORM BRUGES OM:

ING-FORM BRUGES OM:

DET AFSLUTTEDE/KORTVARIGE 

DET UAFSLUTTEDE/

LIGE NU/IGANGVÆRENDE

I kissed her before she fell asleep

He knocked at the door.

 Crime is becoming a threat to society;

I am teaching.

ET FAKTUM

DET BESKRIVENDE/

LIGE NU/IGANGVÆRENDE

I love you; Your dog snored last night;

I need more information

It is raining cats and dogs; What is going on?;Your dog was barking last night.

DET GENTAGNE/VANEMÆSSIGE

DET DRAMATISKE/

LIGE NU/IGANGVÆRENDE

I teach; He (often/always/never) plays tennis.

I was kissing her when her father came home; They are playing tennis.

 

Typiske danske udtryk for "ing-form"=

VED AT/I FÆRD MED;- STOD/SAD/

GIK/LÅ - og røg: was smoking

II.

2 handlinger der foregår samtidig skal have samme form.

 

While I was staying in London they were repairing Big Ben.

 

III.

ING-FORM bruges om den igangværende BAGGRUNDSHANDLING

 

He was smoking his pipe when I entered.

 

IV.

ING-FORM bruges ALTID EFTER FORHOLDSORD

 

He stared without listening ; In the hope of seeing you ...

 

V.

Visse ord tager altid ing-form efter sig

 

Dan selv sætninger som  I don't mind helping you

med: KEEP;GO ON;PUT OFF;LOOK FORWARD TO;ENJOY;CANNOT HELP;

BE USED TO (i betydningen "være vant til".

 

 

 

 

 

§ 12  UDSAGNSORD I FREMTID

 

 

REN FREMTID: SHALL og WILL  (uden bibetydninger; man forestiller sig blot den                                                    fremtidige situation)

 

I shall return next year; When will he send the papers?

 

HENSIGT: TO BE GOING TO

 

I am going to send the papers tomorrow; Peter was going to fetch the car, but fell on the gravel and could not move.

 

PLANLAGT OG FORBEREDT  (= næsten igangværende):   ING-FORM

 

I am leaving England tomorrow; They are going out tonight;

 

HELT NÆR FREMTID: TO BE ABOUT TO / TO BE ON THE POINT OF

 

The train was on the point of setting  off when Fiona stepped in.

I was about to leave when he came with the ticket.

 

AFTALE (dansk "skal) : TO BE TO

 

I am to meet him at 5; You are are to read the next 2 pages; He was to be at the dentist in an hour; They were to look after the baby.

 

 

 

 

 

§ 13  MÅDESUDSAGNSORD

 

 

                           1. CAN

 

EVNE:                 I can speak English; He can hop, he can run, that is fun,fun,fun.

TILLADELSE:     Can I go now, please?  (er der noget til hinder for...)

SANDSYNLIG MULIGHED: Can she be English, do you think?

 

                            2. MAY/ MIGHT   (ofte dansk "måske")                  

 

USIKKER MULIGHED:  Well, you may be right, of course, but...

                                           She might be English, but...(mere usikker mulighed)

TILLADELSE:                   May I go now, please? (må have lov til)

                                          Might I go now, please? (mere høfligt)                     

     

                            3. MUST

                              

PÅBUD/FORBUD            Must I go now? (skal)

                                           You must not smoke here!

LOGISK NØDVENDIGHED:          Look at him! He must be mad; That must be Big Ben!

SAMVITTIGHEDENS NØDVENDIGHED: I must go and see her. I think she is dying.             

 

                            4. HAVE TO

 

YDRE TVANG:   I have to do my homework first, you know.

 

                            5. SHOULD

                           

"BURDE"                          He should be here by now; You should'nt drink so much.

                                           (smlg. OUGHT TO = "burde" efter alm. moralske regler

                                           He ought to have taken more care of her.)                

NGT. URIMELIGT           That it should come to this!; How should I know!

DET EVENTUELLE         If he should turn up I will tell him.

 

                            6. WILL , WOULD

 

DET FORVENTELIGE              Accidents will happen; Cork will float on water.

STÆRK VILJE   I will have it done!  He will not do he dishes.

DET GENTAGNE ("plejer at")    He will sit there for hours. (han plejer at sidde...)           

 

                                  7. TO BE TO: DET FORUD-BESTEMTE / EN AFTALE (se § 12)

 

 

 

 

§14   DET  UBESTEMTE KENDEORD    

 

                    +

                     -

           A / AN BRUGES VED:  

         A / AN UDELADES VED:    

 Stilling og personsbetegnelse

 der gælder mange

 

 Even as ­a girl I wanted to become a         teacher  

        

 His father was made Bishop of London

 (fordi der kun er én af slagsen)

 

 

 

  En del af = _ PART OF

  når det ikke er en bestemt,veldefineret

  del. 

 

 The head is a part of the body

  He spent part of his life in Egypt

 

  FEW, LITTLE = næsten ingen(ting)

 Were there any people at the concert ? 

 Yes, there were a few.

 In spite of the noise I slept a little last

 night.

 

  Were there any people at the concert?

  No, there were few people there.  

  Because of the noise I slept little

  last night.

 

 

 

 

§ 15    DET BESTEMTE KENDEORD

THE                                           

           THE BRUGES VED: 

THE UDELADES VED:

 Instrumenter

Begreber brugt i fuld almindelighed,

uden nærmere afgrænsning: society

  He likes playing the guitar

  Ann plays the piano extremely well.

You cannot alwyas blame society

Nature is very polluted on this planet.

Life is short, death always comes too soon.

Man has done more harm than good.

MAN = menneskET.

  Egenavne i flertal

 

  Familien Johnson = The Johnsons

  This car is made in the USA.

 

  Foran OF-konstruktion

 

  I håb om: In the hope of seeing you.

  I retning af: In the direction of the wood

 

  Foran FOLLOWING og SAME 

 

  Følgende historie: The following story   

  told.

  Samme historie: The  same story was 

  told.                                                           

 

 

 

 

 Om bygningen dog:

HOSPITAL, PRISON, CHURCH, BED,

TABLE, SCHOOL,når man tænker på

deres karakteristiske funktion. 

 

The doctor showed us the  hospital

His wife was waiting outside the prison

The school was on fire.

They were sitting round the table

He was taken to hospital.

The day he got out of prison.

School is over at two o`clock.

They were at table when I came in.

The most = 3-grad af tillægsord

MOST= "de fleste/ det meste"

She is the most beautiful girl.

They are the most respectable people

 

He ate most of the apple.

Most respectable people have a car

 

 

 

 

 

§ 16  PERSONLIGE STEDORD

                

she - her - her - hers

it  - it  - its - its

 

 

DANSK BETONET DET/ DEN

Engelsk THE, når der følger en nærmere bestemmelse bagefter

The  man you spoke of has been caught by the police

He came to the conclusion that I was wrong   (den konklusion)

  

DANSK DER

Engelsk  -  hvis det er muligt

Der var få mennesker: Few people were in the hall when I came.

Der blev sendt bud efter lægen: The doctor was sent for.

Engelsk IT om AFSTAND, TILSTAND, TID

It's a long way to Tipperary.

Der var koldt i værelset: it was cold in the room.

Der gik måneder...: It was months before...

           

DANSK "MAN"

Engelsk LIDEFORM er altid bedst   (se § 10)

Man fandt ham i grøften - He was found in the ditch

Man så ham siden i Paris - He was later seen in Paris

Engelsk THEY  (dansk: "de")

They make excellent butter in England

Engelsk YOU  (dansk "du/dig")

You can see a lot of old churches in London.    (man/du)

Engelsk ONE  (den talende underforstår sig selv)

I didn't cry. One must keep one's dignity, you know.

 

DANSK DET

ENGELSK -  ,efter TELL,KNOW,TRY,UNDERSTAND,REMEMBER.  I know!

ENGELSK SO, efter THINK,EXPECT,HOPE,SAY,SUPPOSE,FEAR.   I think so!

ENGELSK HE,SHE,THEY, når de har været nævnt før.

She saw the ropes in the grass, but suddenly she realized that they were snakes.

Who is the lady over there? She is my mother.

 

 

 

 

§ 17

 

I. NO. SOME. ANY. EVERY.

NO/SOME/ANY/EVERY + THING/ONE/BODY     er      ENTAL

No one is  home: Nothing is wrong; Somebody has seen him; (somebody/someone = en eller anden);  Everyone  is able to do it.

 

ANY m/u. sammensætninger udtrykker:

TVIVL,NEGATIVITET,er KATEGORISK (overhovedet,som helst)

Have you taken any jobs yet? - Do you have any idea? - No, I am not hiding anything! (derfor tit brugt i spørgende og nægtende sætninger.

SOME m/u. sammensætninger udtrykker:

POSITIV EKSISTENS,POSITIV FORVENTNING,ngt/ngl. ud af en mængde.

Would you like some sandwiches?  (man forventer "ja")

I think you are hiding something!  (man forventer det)

 

NONE og SOME alene   er  FLERTAL

 

I called all my friends but none of them were home.

Some people have no sense of humour.

 

 

II.    THIS/THESE. THAT/THOSE    

THIS/THESE = DET NÆRE  i tid, sted, følelse

THAT/THOSE = DET FJERNE  i tid, sted, følelse

In those days murders were rare, which is not exactly the case these  days

This is my house, - that is yours, and don't you forget!

I hate that man!

 

III.

ALL    =  stort set alle

EVERY  =  hver eneste uden undtagelse

EACH   =  hver enkelt hver især.

 

HELLER IKKE = NOR / not .....either

Nor had I seen her new house; I had not seen her new house either.

 

HVERKEN - ELLER  =  (N)EITHER  - (N)OR

Neither my sister nor myself has accepted the offer. I've not informed either you or her.

 

JA (:tja) = WELL,I must admit I don't know

   (:endda)= She was young, INDEED younger than I had expected. 

 

 

 

 

§ 18  AS LIKE

 

                     AS

                  LIKE

Grammatisk regel:

FORAN HEL SÆTNING;

FORAN FORHOLDSORDSLED

Grammatisk regel:

FORAN ENKELT-ORD

FORAN ENKELT-LED

Do as I told you!

As  in London so in Birmingham.

Do like me for instance!

This is just like the other day.

 

 

Betydning:

IDENTITET (evt. bare tilstræbt)

Betydning:

SAMMENLIGNING

As your best friend I must warn you.

Did you see Lawrence Olivier as Hamlet?

Like your best friend I must warn you.

He is blue eyed like his father.

 

 

 

 

§ 19  KOMMA

 

SÅ FÅ SOM MULIGT!!!     Og ALDRIG grammatisk komma!

 

He said  that he would come later.

 

Derfor ALDRIG FORAN THAT-SÆTNING  (definerende sætning)

 

He told the news to all the men  who/that were interested.

He told the news to all his men, who were very interested.

 

Ved DIREKTE TALE, i st.f. dansk kolon (:).

 

Peter said at once, "I love you"; It says in line five, "He was not the murderer."

 

Ved tydelige PAUSER. Således f.eks. også i opremsning.

 

Still,I don't like it; I couldn't care less,tp tell you the truth; He seemed,and as a matter of fact he was,very nervous; Honestly,why take the trouble!

 

OMKRING ,HOWEVER, - fordi den altid skaber en pause.

This,however,is a matter for experts.

 

 

 

 

§ 20 TAL

 

NUL/10­

 

NOUGHT           om regnestørrelsen     There are three noughts in 1000

ZERO                 om nulpunkt på skala   The temperature is nearing zero

OU                      ved opremsning         01 802700

 

 

ORDENSTAL

 

1st  -  first                        8th  -  eighth

2nd  -  second                20th -  twentieth

3rd  -  third                      2/3  -  two/thirds

 

For det første     - For det andet       -    For det tredje

In the first place - In the second place - In the third place...

Firstly            - Secondly            - Thirdly

 

Engelsk PUNKTUM = dansk KOMMA   I payed 2.5 kroner

Engelsk KOMMA   = dansk PUNKTUM  7,786,435 kroner       

 

 

                      On the left hand page           On the right hand page  

At the top.

 

 

 

 

 

In the middle.

 

 

 

 

 

At he bottom.

           43

The top/first line.

In line two.

Three lines down.

Four lines from the top

 

 

 

 

 

4 lines from the bottom.

The last line but two.

The last line but one.

The last line.

             44

 

Det står på side 43, midt, linje 20-21 : 

It says on  page 43, in the middle, lines 20 to 2l

 

 

 

 

§ 21  TID

 

   AT

  

   IN  

 

  

 

   BY     

 

   FOR

 

 DURING

 

    ON

 

    AGO     

TidsPUNKT     I'll see you at five.

 

Dansk OM      I'll see you in four hours.

 

Dansk PÅ      He did the job in 2 hours

 

Dansk HENAD   I'll be there by Friday.

 

Dansk I       I stayed there for a month.  (hvor længe)

 

Dansk I       He lived there during the 60s  (hvornår)

 

Datoangivelse He came on Monday the 15.Sept.

 

Dansk FOR/SIDEN  I met her 10 years ago

 

 

 

 II.   STED

      AT

 

 

 

      IN

 

 

 

      AT

 

 

      BY

 

 

      ON

 

 

 

Dansk PÅ/I (et PUNKT)         He is at the office.

                              He lives at 10, Downing Street.

                              He arrived at Vejle yesterday.

 

Dansk PÅ/I (et OMRÅDE)        He is in his office.

                              He lives in Downing Street.

                              He arrived in London yesterday.

 

Dansk VED (beskæftiget v.) He was sitting at the piano (spiller)

                           She is at the table (spiser)             

 

Dansk VED (v.siden af)     He was sitting by the piano,drinking.

                           She was sitting by the table,playing.

 

Dansk (vand/lodret) A pen on the desk,a photo on the wall.

 

Dansk VED (på en linje) A village on the road to Vejle.

 

MANGE ORD HAR BESTEMTE FORHOLDSORD EFTER SIG:

aim at; throw at; point at; good at; surprised at; dependent on; knock at;

characteristic of; envious of; typical of; angry with; pale with fright;

cry with joy etc. PUNKT PÅ EN SKALA:AT  at an early age;at full speed

 

 

 

 

§  22 

 

I. AF

  BY

 

 

  OF

 

 

  From  

om den handlende i LIDEFORM (se § 10 III.)

The house was built by the achitect.

 

om MATERIALET

The house was built of stone.

 

om materialets/tingens OPRINDELSE

Butter is made from cream.

 

 

 

II. TIL og FOR

  TO

Om RETNING,ngt. der DIREKTE rammer én.

  FOR 

Mere vagt: ngt. der angår/berører én, er beregnet/bestemt for én.

 

I have a letter for you; Send the letter to me;

Will you read a story for the children?

Write a letter for me, please; Write a letter to me, please.

Ofte bruges de i flænge:

It was a shock to/for me.

 

 

III. MED

  BY

 

WITH

 

 IN  

 

MIDLET.  The town was taken by force.

 

MIDLET i LIDEFORM    He was killed with an axe.

 

PÅKLÆDNING + ngt. man UDTRYKKER I SKRIFT el. lign.  He was the man in the top hat; It was written in ink; Say it in English, boy!

 

 

IV.  OM

 

OF   - berører emnet  -   He spoke of strange things

ABOUT - (mere indgående) -  Tell me about it some other day.

ON  -  (dybere, mere teoretisk, sagligt) - The professor wrote a book on the development

                                            of the English language.

 

 

 

 

§ 23  FORHOLDSORD I PAR

 

   IN

FORBLIVEN 

He is walking in the garden

   INTO

BEVÆGELSE

He is walking into the garden

 

  The tree was cut into pieces; She poured beer into the glass. Undtagen ved PUT.

 

 

    AGAINST

 

Ass. af MODSTAND,SAMMENSTØD,­FJENDTLIGHED

He turned against me; He ran against the wall;

I have nothing against you.

TOWARDS

Ass af VENLIGHED, RETNING

Be kind towards the boys! He came towards me;

He turned towards me an smiled.

 

  MEN alligevel: I felt bitter hate towards him; He turned his back to me.

 

ACROSS

Fra den ene SIDE til den anden. He came across the road to my shop.

OVER

Hen over en flade, uden tanke for siderne.

The car bumped over the rough ground.

 

BETWEEN

MELLEM TO. He squeezed himself in between the two girls

AMONG      

MELLEM FLERE. He enjoyed being among his friends again

                                                                           

ROUND

CIRKEL-FORM  The earth moves round; Don't turn round

ABOUT

I FORSK. RETNING,HIST og PIST. He travelled about in Italy.

 

  MEN: They were taken round Rome/the world/the house. (ass. af RUNDTUR)

 

OVER/UNDER -

ABOVE/BELOW

The airship is over the boat.

The boat is under the airship.

The man is above the boat.

The man is below the airship.

 

ABOVE/BELOW : om mål på en SKALA  Above sea level.

 

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